26 Kasım 2016 Cumartesi

Byzantine Empire History And Map

Map Of Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire is actually one of the underestimated civilization of the world in my opinion. First of all, Byzantine name is an artificial name that is referring to the ancient Byzantium, the greek city of antique ages. Roman Empire is splitted by Theodosios and Eastern Roman Empire overlived the Western sister.

While the Western Roman Empire was occupied, damaged and looted by the barbarians from the north, Eastern Roman Empire was climbing up the hills of the summit. The long run adventure of Eastern Roman Empire was just beginning in the 5th century and lasted for more than a thousand years.

Map Of Byzantine Empire Greatest Borders


Benefits Of Examining The Historic Maps

To comprehend the growth and expansion of an empire, you should check the historical maps very carefully. So when you check through the google search engine as "Rise of the Byzantine Empire" you may come across to great maps that depicts the great expansion of Byzantines to the west and south in the 6th century.

The rise of Byzantine Empire reached to its peak by the time of renowned emperor Justinianus. Accomplished Justinianus created a prosperous capital, Constantinople and added great value to the fame of Byzantine Empire. His intelligent wife Theodora also has some share in this great success. One of their masterwork was building the Church of Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia.

Emperor Justinian And Empress Theodora


Byzantine Or Byzantium?

I am actually a little bit of confused how to call the Eastern Roman Empire. Some sources mention the empire as Byzantine, some define it as Byzantium. Infact the Byzantium term is used for Istanbul's first name, when it had been a Greek city-state just like Athens or Sparta. Istanbul had three names in the history; Byzantium (Greek), Constantinople (Roman) and Istanbul (Turkish). So to call the Empire as Byzantium does not make any sense, we should continue to define it as Byzantine Empire which is a very pretty name.

Byzantine Military

Fall Of Byzantine Empire

The fall of Byzantine Empire very interesting subject. The historians must have called it as the longest decline of the world. I mean empires are generally founded, lived and broken apart in several hundreds of years. However the Byzantine Empire's decline lasted for nearly 500 years. When Turks came and conquered the heartland of the Byzantine Empire, Anatolia (Asia Minor), it was 1071.

The famous Battle of Manzikert took place at the easternmost fringes of the Byzantine Empire between the Alp Arslan and Romanos IV Diogenes. Seljuks won the battle due to their extremely mobile cavalry. The cavalry circled the routed Byzantine legions and slaughtered them. The Byzantine army which had been fighting on the fields from the 395 A.D. (official foundation year) had never been humiliated like this. Some fought to death, some left the battlefield, but they could not save themselves from reaped by the Seljuk light cavalry.

So I personally consider this disaster as the beginning of long and steady decline of Byzantine Empire. It lasted exactly from 1071 to 1453.

Constantinople the Capital


Fall Of Constantinople

The fall of Constantinople, the capital and last castle of the Byzantine Empire, of course the very end of the story. However in between these two tragedies, there is also Latin invasion of Constantinople, which is also horrible occurrence in the history. The crusaders unfortunately did plundered and looted dear Constantinople. The most beautiful, advanced and ornamented city.


Map Of Byzantine Empire


Byzantine Empire of course has a long history as I am calling your attention to it from the very beginning of the post. To absorb the history of  long existence and to grasp the deepness of this diverse cultural inheritance, I recommend you to take a look at this great article: Byzantine Empire Map And Facts By reading this great article and examining the maps it provides, you may improve the foundation of your history knowledge much better.

Furhter Recommended Reading from the blog: Historic Battles Of The World.

Serhat Engül


25 Kasım 2016 Cuma

Map Of Ottoman Empire

Map Of Ottoman Empire

Historic maps are extremely useful when it comes to figure out the history of old empires. The Ottoman Empire founded in 1299 and lasted until 1922. The borders of the Empire changed each and every decade so you need a very colorful map to describe its expansion or shrinkage.

Most Useful Map For Better Understanding

Actually it's almost impossible to describe the Ottoman Empire's situation in one map, from its rise until the fall. Perhaps you should check from search engines as the "Rise of the Ottoman Empire" first and have a look at its height. Afterwards check "Fall of the Ottoman Empire" and observe the fall of the Empire from 1699 to 1922.

Map Of Ottoman Empire


Rise Of The Ottoman Empire

Rise of the empire was an interesting period. Ottoman Empire was established as a little city-state, it grew into an empire in nearly 150 years. So the Osman (Uthman or Othman) was the Turkish name of the founder and he was nothing more than a chieftain. He must have been a very wise and clever man. Thus he was able to create a well-eastablished princedom during his lifetime.

Osman is followed by Orhan and he was an able Sultan as well. He kept expanded the borders. The successors, Murad I, Bayezid I, Mehmed I, Murat II also successful rulers.

We should open a new page for Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror though. He was the one who converted the princedom into an Empire. A very well-educated and knowledgeable person with a very unique of a kind personality. He acted like a Renaissance Maecenas.

Mehmed The Conqueror

Mehmed The Conqueror was of course the most notable Sultan of initial years of the Ottoman Empire. He is famous for Conquest of Constantinople which is known in the western world as Fall of Constantinople.

Suleiman the Magnificent of course most notable Sultan of all times in the Ottoman Empire. He dreamed of creating the superpower state that his grandfather had dreamed of. (Mehmed The Conqueror) And he succeeded in many ways.

The Ottoman Empire Map above describes the Rise of the empire perfectly. You may see the rising period from the very beginning to the end which is 1699.

Fall Of The Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire could not keep up with new explorations, Renaissance movements and reforms. Thus while Europe was going ahead, Ottoman Empire standed still and worse than that it got backwards. The new inventions of Europe, caused the European armies to have better weapons, so Ottoman Empire fell behing the modern world while it was so busy with the internal turbulences and unstabilities.

Some of the last Sultans tried really hard to make some series of reforms but these acts could not save the staggering Empire from decline.

Finally the World War I became the end of the game. The 600 years old Empire buried the ground. The new Turkish Republic is established from the ashes of the long-lasting Ottoman Empire.

I strongly recommend you to check this very useful article which is published on my favorite blog Ottoman Empire Map And Facts you might find this brilliant article very useful to have a better understanding of Ottoman Empire history.

By Serhat Engül

19 Kasım 2016 Cumartesi

Amerika Ve Avrupa İçin Turistik Vize Almak

Amerika Ve Avrupa İçin Turistik Vize Almak


İnternette google üzerinden aranan Türkçe kelimeleri kontrol ettiğimde ilginç bir sonuç önüme çıktı. Türkiye'de en çok aratılan kelimelerin başında Amerika Vizesi ve Schengen AB vizesi ile ilgili kelime kombinasyonları geliyor.

Tüm seyahat sitelerinin birbiri ile söz birliği etmiş gibi Avrupa Birliği Schengen ülkeleri veya Amerika Seyahati Mülakat Başvurusu ile ilgili yazılar yazmasının da sebebi bu olsa gerek. Çünkü iki kelime de ayda en az 1000 ila 10.000 kez google arama motorunda aratılıyor ve haliyle en üst sırada gelen sonuçlar, sitelere müthiş bir trafik kazandırıyor.

Defalarca Schengen vizesi, Amerika vizesi, Hindistan vizesi almış biri olarak bu konulara biraz aşina olduğumu belirtmeliyim. Tüm vize yazıları arasında bir araştırma yaptım ve aralarından en iyileri sizin için seçtim.

Seyahat etmek insana büyük bir kazanım sağlıyor ve özellikle gençlerin öğrenciyken seyahat etmeleri çok önemli, her gencin elinin altında da internet erişimi olduğuna göre, herkes bu konuları internetten araştırıyor ve okuyor. Schengen AB Vizesi veya Amerika Vizesi almak için konsoloslukların öne sürdüğü kriterleri araştırıyorlar.

Amerika Vizesi Nasıl Alınır?

Amerika Turistik Seyahat Vizesi Almak



Amerika Konsolosluğu aslında turist vizesi almak isteyenlerin işini kolaylaştırıyor diyebiliriz. Eğer başvuran kişi tüm kriterleri karşılıyorsa ve konsolosluktaki mülakatı da başarı ile geçerse, on yıllık turistik seyahat vizesi veriyor ve konuyu kapatıyorlar. Elbette böyle uzun vadeli vize almak çok büyük bir avantaj ve size defalarca giriş çıkış yapma hakkı tanıyor. Bu büyük bir fırsat diyebiliriz.

Bu konudaki en sade ve açıklayıcı yazı için linke tıklayınız:

Amerika Vizesi Nasıl Alınır

Schengen Avrupa Birliği AB Vizesi Almak 


Buna karşılık olarak, Avrupa ülkeleri vize konusunda daha cimriler. Avrupa’ya schengen vizesi almak isteyen Türkler, ilk seferde boncuk terler döküyorlar. Zira istenen evrakların listesi çarşaf gibi uzun ve kriterleri karşılamak çok kolay değil. Buna ek olarak, tüm kriterleri karşılasanız bile vize alacağınıza dair hiçbir garanti yok.

Schengen Vizesi için başvuru yapılırken, uçak bileti alınması, konaklama rezervasyonu yapılması ve bunların konsolosluğa belgelenmesi gerekiyor. Aslına bakarsanız bu işlemleri tam olarak yapınca, düzenli olarak da çalıştığınız bir işiniz varsa vize alma konusunda sorun yaşamanız pek olası değil. Ekseriyetle bu kriterleri karşılayan insanlara zaten vize veriyorlar.

Ancak vize başvuru sürecinde yaşadığınız stres ve heyecan da sizin yanınıza kalıyor. Reddedilme mevzusu gerçekten korkutucu, çünkü bir kez red yeyince, bu olumsuz deneyim tüm kayıtlara giriyor ve İngiltere veya Amerika vizesi alacağınız zaman da karşınıza çıkıyor. Bu da yurt dışı seyahatlerini seven ve dünyayı yavaş yavaş gezmeyi planlayan insanlar için gerçekten can sıkıcı bir durum diyebiliriz.

Schengen Vizesi Nasıl Alınır?


En Kolay Vize Veren AB Schengen Ülkeleri


Bu konuda size naçizane tavsiyem, öncelikle Akdeniz ülkelerini denemeniz olacaktır. Örneğin Yunanistan, İtalya ve İspanya’dan vize başvurusu reddedilen insan sayısı gerçekten azdır. Çok göze batan bir engeliniz yoksa (işsiz olmak gibi) büyük olasılıkla vize alacaksınız demektir.

Ancak Almanya, Avusturya, Hollanda gibi Türklerin yoğun olarak yaşadığı ülkeler işi biraz daha ağırdan almakta ve zorlaştırmaktadır. Vize verseler dahi bu seyahatinizi planladığınız süre zarfını ancak karşılamaktadır. Zira 7 gün, 10 gün veya 15 gün gibi vize verdikleri oluyor.

Yalnız anlattığım tüm bu detaylar aslına bakarsanız tamamen kişiye bağlıdır. Genelleme yapmak ve bu işin formülünü sunmak ise imkansızdır.

Sık yurt dışına çıkan ve geçmişte bol Schengen vizesi olan bir insanın, elbette vize alması çok daha kolaydır ve ilgili konsolosluk tarafından uzun süreli Schengen vizeleri verilir.

Tabi sorun ilk kez schengen alacak insanların ne yapacağı…

Bu konuyla ilgili Schengen Vizesi Nasıl Alınır başlıklı yazıyı okumanızı tavsiye ederim. Amerika turistik seyahat vizesi ile ilgili yazıyı da yukarıdaki ilgili linkten bulabilirsiniz.

İyi şanslar!

Serhat Engül

Istanbul Guided Tours

9 Kasım 2016 Çarşamba

Great Love Stories Of The History

Great Love Stories Of History

Some great rulers had been great lovers and husbands in the history. There are attractive stories of some Kings, Emperors, Sultans, I will try to give some examples of these great stories.


Justinian And Theodora Love Story


Justinian & Theodora


This one is from the 6th century. Justinian was known as the greatest ruler of Byzantine Empire. He fell in love with Theodora.

Theodora is believed to had been a circus dancer and it was not so common for an emperor to marry a dancer those days. Justinian had to resist against his mother’s strong opposition in order to marry with Theodora.

Theodora, however, proved that Justinian had made a great choice. She became the strongest first lady of Byzantine history. Throughout the 1000 years of history, she is known as the most powerful empress.

Love Stories Of History Suleiman & Roxelana


Sultan Suleiman & Roxelana


Suleiman I of Ottoman Empire was the strongest ruler of Turkish history. He lived in 16th century and ruled the Empire for 46 years.

He fell in love with a Russian originated slave girl. Roxelana had been taken prisoner by the pirates. She was sold to the Ottoman palace. She was a beautiful girl, and more than that a strong character.

She had been a concubine in the Harem of Topkapı Palace. Eventually she managed to attract the attention of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The strongest ruler of the 16th century. Sultan fell in love with her. Gave her the name of “Hurrem” which means “Joy”.

Ottoman Sultans rarely married a women, but Sultan Suleiman did marry with her. It was a fairytale of that century.

You may find a detailed article about the love of Suleiman And Roxelana from the linked article.


Magnificent Century Tv Series


This famous couple now the main subjects of Tv Series called Magnificent Century. This TV show first broadcasted in Turkey and became a phenomenon in the Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Latin American countries. I strongly recommend you to have a look at it from youtube. You may easily find English subtitle versions.

Serhat Engül